The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world, spanning much of Europe, Asia, and Africa at its height in the 2nd century AD. The empire was ruled by an autocratic emperor and was divided into provinces governed by appointed officials. The Roman Empire was known for its military might, advanced engineering, and legal system. However, it also relied heavily on slave labor and had a complex system of social hierarchy.

The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean after the fall of the western half of the empire in 476 AD. The Byzantine Empire was centered in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey) and its citizens continued to refer themselves as Romans. The empire was characterized by its strong centralized government, sophisticated culture, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. It was also known for its military and diplomatic successes, as well as its preservation of ancient Greek and Roman knowledge.

The Byzantine Empire lasted for over a thousand years, until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 AD.