Short Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev is a Soviet and Russian politician who served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the Soviet Union from 1988 until its collapse in 1991. Gorbachev introduced a number of political and economic reforms, including glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring), which aimed to modernize the Soviet Union and make it more democratic.
His policies led to the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, which was marked by a series of peaceful revolutions in Eastern Europe and the Baltics, and the eventual reunification of Germany. Gorbachev received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his efforts to reduce Cold War tensions and nuclear weapons. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, he remained an active participant in Russian and international politics.